International Journal of Engineering and Management Research 2024-05-18T07:24:32+00:00 Prof. (Dr.) Mohammad Husain Open Journal Systems <p>International Journal of Engineering and Management Research is a full peer-reviewed &amp; refereed open access bi-monthly journal that publish research papers / articles on all the fields of engineering and management subjects.</p> <p><strong>JOURNAL PARTICULARS</strong></p> <p><strong>Title:</strong> International Journal of Engineering and Management Research<br /><strong>Frequency:</strong> Bimonthly (6 issue per year)<br /><strong>ISSN (Online):</strong> <a href="[]=MUST=allissnbis=%222250-0758%22&amp;search_id=23468206" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2250-0758</a><br /><strong>ISSN (Print):</strong> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2394-6962</a><br /><strong>Publisher:</strong> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Vandana Publications</a>, Lucknow, India (Registered under the Ministry of MSME, Government of India with the registration number “UDYAM-UP-50-0046532”)<br /><strong>Chief Editor:</strong> Prof. (Dr.) Mohammad Husain (Head of the Faculty, Department of Computer Science, Islamic University of Madinah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia<strong>)</strong><br /><strong>Copyright:</strong> Author<br /><strong>License:</strong> Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License<br /><strong>Starting Year:</strong> 2011<br /><strong>Subject:</strong> Engineering and Management <br /><strong>Language:</strong> English<br /><strong>Publication Format:</strong> Online &amp; Print<br /><strong>Contact Number:</strong> +91-9696045327<br /><strong>Email Id:</strong><br /><strong>Website:</strong> <a href=""></a><br /><strong>Registered Address:</strong> UG-4, Avadh Tower, Naval Kishor Road, Opp. Kaysons Lane, Hazratganj, Lucknow-226001, India.</p> The State of Income Tax on Rent in Zambia: The Way Forward 2024-03-11T06:41:49+00:00 Muziya Mutungwa Erastus Mwanaumo <p>The aim of the study was to develop a framework of measures that could be employed by The Zambia Revenue Authority (ZRA) to increase revenue from house rentals. A qualitative phenomenological study involving ZRA staff was employed. Data was collected using in-depth interviews and future search conference techniques (presentations, discussions at plenary sessions and document review). Data was analysed using modified content analysis which has an extension of Katherine Charmaz’s Constructivist Grounded Theory. In this sense, the research focused on the meanings attributed by the participants to the research phenomenon and in this case Rental Income Tax. The main findings in this study are that the quantum of the tax that is remitted by the tax payer was based on a self-assessment estimate principle. ZRA did not assess property, not even the lease agreement to ensure that it received a commensurate quantum of the Tax. As from January 2022, the authority changed the Income Tax Rental (ITR) liability which initially was placed on the tenant to the landlord. The landlord as an income earner is now mandated to remit the rental tax as Rental Income Tax (RIT). There are several barriers that influenced tax compliance including the low tax knowledge by the citizenry, the perception of equity and fairness, low citizenry tax education, cultural factors where the citizenry are not committed to pay taxes, tax under-declaring and poor record keeping. Following a change in targeting tenants to landlords, the month-on-month income figures for the tax from the time it was changed, self-withholding tax in 2023 has increased. The study concludes that RIT is not being paid as expected because there are barriers on the tax payer’s and ZRA sides.&nbsp; There are a number of viable ways that have been proposed to break ground as far as reaching out to all landlords. This tax collection system should be imposed in general and evenly.&nbsp; This principle of justice must always be upheld and used as an absolute requirement for tax collectors to achieve prosperity in society.</p> 2024-04-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Muziya Mutungwa, Erastus Mwanaumo Exploring Factors Influencing the Financial Success of Public and Private Life Insurers in India 2024-03-18T06:13:11+00:00 Spoorthy Reddy M Michael Yuivamung Zimik <p>Purpose - This research aims to comprehensively explore the factors that impact the financial success of commercial &amp; public life insurers in India. Going beyond conventional metrics, the study incorporates non-monetary indicators such as client centric, growth, and social value. It also delves into often overlooked external factors impacting insurance companies and considers the differences in the functioning of commercial &amp; public life insurers. <br />Design/Approach – This research adopts a systematic sampling framework, selecting 10 life insurance firms, which comprises the state-owned giant Life insurance corporation of India (LIC) as well as, nine commercial insurers. Data is collected over a five-year period (2015-16 to 2019-20) from various secondary sources, including published literature, annual reports, and regulatory documents. Both descriptive and hypothesis testing including multiple linear regression and correlation analyses, are employed to assess the significance of cash flow/ liquidity, leverage, solvency and workforce size on financial performance.<br />Findings -Descriptive statistics highlight variations in mean values among the selected variables, emphasizing their significance in determining financial performance. Correlation analyses reveal weak associations among variables, while regression analysis indicates that current ratio and size significantly impact profitability. Notably, public and private insurers show differences in Return on Equity and Expense Ratio, while no significant difference exists in Return on Assets.<br />Research Limitations – While the study has valuable contribution, it’s important to consider its limitations. The analysis relies on secondary data, and the sample size, though systematic, is relatively small. Additionally, the study’s findings may not be applicable to life insurers in other regions due to its focus on India.<br />Practical implication- The findings provide actionable insights for practitioners in the insurance industry, <br />offering guidance on enhancing profitability through attention to liquidity and workforce size. The findings identify the key drivers of profitability for life insurers in the current market. Regulatory bodies can leverage these insights to foster a healthy competitive environment in Indian life insurance companies.</p> 2024-04-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Spoorthy Reddy M, Michael Yuivamung Zimik Personal AI Companion Voice Assistant 2024-03-11T08:54:11+00:00 Keshava Gowtham NS Deepak V Ingale Harshitha N Adithya S Nithish Rao H D V Venkatesh <p>This paper presents the design and implementation of a personal AI companion voice assistant leveraging the ESP32 microcontroller platform. The system incorporates advanced AI algorithms for natural language processing and voice recognition, enabling intuitive user interaction. Through seamless integration with smart devices, the assistant enhances user experience while prioritizing data privacy and security. The project contributes to the evolution of IoT technologies by offering a personalized and intelligent voice assistant solution.</p> 2024-04-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Keshava Gowtham NS, Deepak Ingale, Harshitha N, Adithya S, Nithish Rao H D , V Venkatesh Visualizing Bibliometric Networks on Green Advertising Literature: What we know and what we do not know 2024-04-03T03:15:44+00:00 Prithvi Natesan Paulraj GS Anna Joy <p>This article aims to perform a bibliometric analysis of the extant research in the area of green advertising to identify the dominant themes and research gaps in the said area. For the purpose of the study, 220 articles were sourced from the Scopus database after running a search query using designated keywords. This study examines the literature on green advertising over the last few years and reviews the published documents using VOSviewer software. While shortlisting the research articles, open-access articles, conference papers, and papers written in other languages were discarded. The study shows the key research trends in the area of green advertising, in terms of parameters like co-author analysis, keyword analysis, country analysis, and organizational analysis. Journal of Advertising, International Journal of Advertising and Sustainability are the leading journals publishing papers in the area of green advertising. China, the United States, and Korea play a major role in research on this topic, with the highest number of corresponding authors coming from these three countries. The findings provide useful insights to academicians in terms of directions for further research that needs to be done.</p> 2024-04-03T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Prithvi Natesan Paulraj GS, Anna Joy Hospital Management using Gin Framework 2024-03-27T05:16:44+00:00 Sona S Thashmigaa E M Menaha C. <p>The ever-evolving landscape of healthcare necessitates the development of efficient Hospital Management Systems (HMS) to optimize operational workflows and facilitate superior patient care. This paper introduces the design and implementation of an HMS using the Gin Framework, a lightweight and versatile web framework tailored for the Go programming language. The proposed HMS encompasses essential modules, such as patient registration, appointment scheduling, electronic health records (EHR), inventory management, and billing. Leveraging the Gin Framework's performance-oriented architecture, the system aims to streamline administrative processes, improve communication among healthcare professionals, and elevate the overall quality of healthcare services. The Gin Framework serves as the underpinning technology for the web application, offering a robust and scalable foundation. Through the utilization of RESTful API endpoints, the system ensures seamless integration with external services and devices, emphasizing interoperability and future scalability. Key functionalities of the HMS include user authentication, role-based access control, real-time updates, and a user-friendly interface. The implementation adheres to industry best practices, prioritizing security, data integrity, and compliance with healthcare standards. System evaluation involves comprehensive usability testing, performance analysis, and feedback solicitation from healthcare professionals and administrators. Results indicate that the HMS developed with the Gin Framework meets the requirements of a contemporary healthcare environment, delivering efficiency gains, improved data accuracy, and enhanced communication. In conclusion, this paper showcases the feasibility and efficacy of employing modern web frameworks, specifically the Gin Framework, to develop scalable and feature-rich healthcare management solutions. The proposed HMS contributes to ongoing efforts to enhance efficiency and quality in healthcare services, serving as a foundation for future advancements in hospital management technology.</p> 2024-04-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Sona S, Thashmigaa E M, Menaha C. Examining E-Government Procurement System Adoption by Procuring Entities in Zambia 2024-04-05T07:54:30+00:00 Chabilo Bubala Dr. Christine Lesa <p>While various African countries, including Zambia, have embarked on the journey of implementing electronic procurement, the full potential of the E-Government Procurement System remains largely untapped, even after its introduction in July 2016. Most Procuring Entities continue to favor manual tendering methods, despite training efforts by the Zambia Public Procurement Authority (ZPPA). This study set out to examine the level of adoption of E-Government Procurement (E-GP) systems by Public Procuring Entities (PEs) in Zambia, identifying the factors affecting adoption of the system using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), managerial imperative and organizational imperative. The study also sought to identify how E-GP influence procurement performance. The study employed an exploratory and descriptive research design where 100 questionnaires were administered to purposively sampled Procuring Entities in Lusaka Province. The data collected was analyzed using tables, graphs and charts. The study revealed that E-GP adoption in Zambia remains low, with only 33.33% of PEs currently utilizing the system and the E-GP system in Zambia lacks essential E-procurement tools which hampers its full integration with other online platforms. The study further identified that lack of internal staff skills, technology challenges, resistance to change, and insufficient management support influence the use of the system. Further, the study revealed that E-GP enhances transparency, reduces corruption, and improves procurement efficiency. Therefore, the researcher recommends investing in developing Database Administrators, full integration of the system with other organization systems, ZPPA should completely stop giving deviations to PEs seeking deviation from the use of the system, employ effective Change Management and address technological challenges especially in rural areas.</p> 2024-04-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Chabilo Bubala, Dr. Christine Lesa NAGJUA– INNOVATIVE LANDSCAPE, AFFORDABLE LUXURY A Real -Life Case Study on Real Estate Giant- Nagjua Developers 2024-04-09T08:38:02+00:00 Shubham Soni Aditya Padhyar Dr. Rajesh Kumar Pandey <p>In India, the real estate sector ranks as the second-highest employment generator, following the agriculture sector. The Indian real estate market is expected to grow to Rs. 65,000 crore (US$ 9.30 billion) by 2040, with a projected market size of US$ 1 trillion by 2030. The real estate sector comprises four sub-sectors: housing, retail, hospitality, and commercial, and is globally recognized as a key economic driver. Government initiatives, such as the Smart City Project, aim to encourage development in the real estate sector, offering opportunities for companies. This Case Study talks about the Real Estate Industry with special reference to NAGJUA developers at Silvassa. The real estate sector in the Silvassa and Vapi region has experienced significant growth driven by industrial expansion and proactive government initiatives. Nagjua, a key player in the local real estate market, is renowned for its luxurious residential properties and commitment to ecologically sustainable projects. The Nagjua Group, established in 2005, showcasing a journey characterized by strategic decision-making, visionary leadership, and a commitment to creativity and innovation. This case highlights the dilemma faced by the company and potential solutions to the dilemma.</p> 2024-04-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Shubham Soni, Aditya Padhyar, Dr. Rajesh Kumar Pandey A Study of the Effect of Monetary Policy and International Reserves on Zambia’s Economic Growth 2024-03-27T05:17:05+00:00 Richard Mukelabai Lubinda Haabazoka <p>The objective of this study was to determine the effect of monetary policy and international reserves on economic growth in Zambia using annual time series data from 1980-2022. A number of studies have been carried in Zambia on the effect of monetary policy on Zambia’s economic growth. Therefore, the study sought to determine the effect of monetary policy and international reserves in Zambia. The variables included in the study were GDP growth (GDPTH) as the dependent variable and International reserves (FXR), exchange rate (EXR), interest rate (IR) and inflation (INF) as independent variables. Data on these variables was obtained from World Bank. The study employed a research design by using the method of ARDL analysis, the data was entered in the software package stata which was used to perform the ARDL model to estimate the long and short run relationship between the dependent variable and independent variables. The ARDL bound test was used to analysis cointegration and long run relationship and the ECM was used for analyzing short run relationship. The results showed that cointegration was there and there was a long- run relationship, all the variables were discovered to have a statistically significant in the long-run. Exchange rate and inflation have a statistically significant negative impact on economic growth in Zambia in the long- run while exchange rate is insignificant in the short-run. Interest rate and international reserves have a statistically significate positive impact on economic growth in Zambia while interest rate is insignificant after in second lag in the short run. Diagnostic test for serial correlation (Breush-Godfrey serial correlation LM test), normality (Jarque-Bera), heteroscedasticity (Breush-Pagan-Godfrey test) and stability (CUSUM-of-square test) were conducted to evaluate the estimated model. The study found that the estimated ARDL model could provide information on the behaviour monetary policy and international reserves’ impact on Zambia’s economic growth. The study recommended diversification of international reserves, exchange rate management, interest rate policies and inflation targeting.</p> 2024-04-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Richard Mukelabai, Lubinda Haabazoka IoT Based Real Time Applications: Smart Irrigation in Agriculture 2024-04-12T17:20:01+00:00 Praba. R Kanimozhi. N Madhankumar. V Kamalesh V.S <p>By automating farm tasks, the agricultural sector can go from being manual and static to intelligent and dynamic, increasing productivity while requiring less human oversight. This study suggests an automated irrigation system that uses automatic watering to monitor and maintain the appropriate soil moisture content. The control unit is implemented using the Arduino Uno platform and microcontroller. The system makes use of soil moisture sensors to determine the precise moisture content of the soil. This number helps the system to use the right amount of water, preventing over- or under-irrigation. Farmers are informed of sprinkler status with the usage of IoT. The system makes use of soil moisture sensors to determine the precise the content of the soil. This number helps the system to use the right amount of water, preventing over under-irrigation. Farmers are informed of sprinkler status with the usage of IOT. This method saves labor as well as water. Using this strategy, water delivery will be based on crop the soil moisture sensor is designed to identify moisture for this independent system, and the ESP8266 Wi-Fi will receive the result.</p> 2024-04-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Praba. R, Kanimozhi. N, Madhankumar. V, Kamalesh V.S Polarization Insensitive Ultra-Wideband ITO Coated PET Based Metamaterial Microwave Absorber 2024-04-14T16:57:19+00:00 Krishangopal Deepak Sood Monish Gupta <p>In this paper, an ultra-wideband compact flexible polarization-insensitive metamaterial microwave absorber is proposed. Transparent PET (polyethylene terephthalate) was used as the dielectric substrate and ITO (indium tin oxide) is used as the conductor for the air and metamaterial structure. The intended absorber provides above 90% absorption in the range of 8.28 GHz to 17.18 GHz under normal incidence. The designed absorber exhibit 80% absorption at oblique angles of incidence. The unit cell size of designed absorber is 0.51λ × 0.51λ w.r.t the center frequency of absorption band. In addition, the designed structure is polarization insensitive absorber as it exhibit the same absorption performance in both TE and TM polarization under the normal incidence of the electromagnetic wave. The study was carried out as a simulation in the HFSS simulator. The results obtained were compared with other reference studies.</p> 2024-04-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Krishangopal, Deepak Sood, Monish Gupta A Study of the Effect of Firm Size on the Financial Performance of LuSE Listed Companies 2024-04-12T05:28:10+00:00 Pumulo Maila Kiru Sichoongwe <p>The Zambian Economy has gone through various financial changes in the recent past. The economy is a growing economy with great potential to expand to great heights. The Lusaka Stock Exchange (LuSE) plays a crucial role in how the economy is faring. Although it has been recording poor liquidity rates, it has since listed a total number of 24 firms since inception. These firms, their size and performance play a crucial role in understanding how both internal and external functions are aligning. The size of a firm has proven to be an important characteristic especially in these modern times where competition is at its all-time high. The research aimed to investigate this topic and determine what models, policies or procedures different sized firms should undertake in-order to survive. The main objective of this study was to evaluate if there a relationship between firm size and financial performance. The target population of this study was all the firms listed on the financial sector of the Lusaka Stock Exchange. The data collected spanned a period of 10 years- from 2012 to 2022. The three independent variables; total debt, total assets and total number of employees measured firm size while the dependent variable- Return on Assets (ROA), measured financial performance. The relationship between the independent variables and the dependent variable were found to be all statistically significant in the long run. However, total assets were found to be statistically insignificant in the short run. The study therefore concludes that firms with more assets, more employees and less debt are more likely to enjoy greater financial profitability in their long run periods. This implies that a positive relationship is expected between the size of the firm and the profitability levels. The association between the two is positive when ROA is employed as the proxy for firm performance.</p> 2024-04-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pumulo Maila, Kiru Sichoongwe Wireless Control System for A Smart Robot 2024-04-17T10:14:45+00:00 Shrikanth Shirakol Apeksha Konnur Nikil V Jujaganv Revanasiddappa Rakshita Tembadmani <p>This paper delineates the development of an Android mobile application tailored for manual control of a robot vehicle via wireless Bluetooth technology. The application prioritizes user interaction through both visual and voice-based commands, offering a versatile control interface. Through the graphical interface, users can actively monitor the robot's proximity to obstacles, facilitated by an integrated ultrasonic sensor positioned at the robot's front. The necessity for a mobile robot prototype based on a differential gear system was paramount to the application's evolution. The project's core objective lies in achieving precise control through voice commands, employing an Android application integrated with a microcontroller. The seamless connection between the Android app and the robot vehicle is established through Bluetooth technology, granting users control via on-screen buttons or spoken commands. A preliminary preparatory session is integral to ensuring the smooth operation of the robot, with a dedicated code employed for instructing the controller effectively. This innovative amalgamation of innovative technology and user-friendly control mechanisms holds promising applications across various domains, from industrial automation to assistive technologies, underscoring the project's potential for real-world impact.</p> 2024-04-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Shrikanth Shirakol, Apeksha Konnur, Nikil V Jujaganv, Revanasiddappa, Rakshita Tembadmani Arduino Based Smart Solar Mower 2024-04-29T06:14:00+00:00 Virendra Swaroop Sangtani Krati Lakhani Kartik Soni Kanishk Pratap Singh Rathore Dushyant Kalodia Karan Vashishth <p>This study recommends an Arduino-based smart solar grass cutter to increase user productivity and accessibility. This paper presents the Smart Solar Grass Cutter’s algorithm, scope, aims, applications and benefits. Grass Cutter industry heavily relies on manually operated grass cutters. However, in addition to using a significant amount of energy and contributing to air pollution, manually operated grass cutters also produce a significant amount of noise and vibration. Arduino based smart solar grass cutter is an intelligent automated grass cutter with ultrasonic sensors for obstacle detection.</p> 2024-04-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Virendra Swaroop Sangtani, Krati Lakhani, Kartik Soni, Kanishk Pratap Singh Rathore, Dushyant Kalodia, Karan Vashishth Optimization of Concrete Mix Design for UPVC Tube Encased Columns: A Study 2024-04-29T07:08:33+00:00 Ashish Redhu <p>This study focuses on assessing the load-carrying capacity of UPVC tubes filled entirely with concrete by subjecting them to axial loading until failure occurs. A total of eighteen UPVC tubes, each with a diameter of 150mm as well as a thickness of 7.11mm, as well as effective lengths ranging from 500mm to 700mm were used. M20 grade concrete sourced from two different mixes with aggregate sizes of 6.3mm as well as 10mm was placed inside the tubes to create UPVC concrete-filled tube (CFT) column samples. These column specimens were then tested for axial loading using a UTM with a capacity of 1000kN, as well as load-displacement as well as stress-strain curves were recorded. The failure mode observed in all columns was local buckling, with increased strength noted as the length of the column increased, particularly in the mix with 6.3mm coarse aggregate compared to 10mm coarse aggregate. The experimental setup also included a study on the efficacy of Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) confinement in short plain circular concrete columns, utilizing various diameters of PVC tubes (110mm to 250mm) with two confinement methods: full confinement as well as confinement with cut ends. The results indicated a significant increase in the ultimate load capacity of the columns with external PVC tube confinement, with enhancement ratios ranging from 4.16% to 15%. Additionally, the study revealed that UPVC CFT columns exhibited an approximate 1.6% increase in compressive strength compared to theoretical values.</p> 2024-04-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Ashish Redhu Mathematical and Machine Learning Based Methods for UAV Simulation: A Systematic Literature Review 2024-04-29T11:35:46+00:00 Shehan Amarasooriya Damitha Sandaruwan <p>Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), frequently called drones, have become highly useful assets in various industries such as surveillance, transportation, and agriculture. Understanding and evaluating drone behavior is difficult because of the intricate interplay of factors such as velocity, altitude, remote controller input and flight path. Therefore, proficient, and knowledgeable workers are required for efficient drone operations. It is essential to have strong training programs for drone pilots to satisfy these expectations. The inclusion of drone simulators is a vital component of these training programs. Drone dynamics simulations are of great importance in several industries since they allow researchers to design and evaluate drones in intricate situations that would otherwise be dangerous or impractical. This paper examines different drone dynamic models based on principles of Newtonian fluid dynamics. The focus of this study is specifically on fundamental elements such as force, gravity, propeller characteristics, and air density. Moreover, this research examines the utilization of machine learning approaches for simulating drone dynamics. This study analyzes different simulation models and conducts a comparison to find areas of research that have not been addressed. After identifying these gaps, the research examines potential ways to address the drawbacks of current simulation models in the future. This research aims to offer valuable insights to future academics who are interested in constructing customized drone simulators.&nbsp; This work works as a core resource, directing the building of customized drone simulators for different uses.</p> 2024-04-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Shehan Amarasooriya, Damitha Sandaruwan Machine Learning-Based System for Weather Prediction and Air Quality Index Estimation 2024-04-29T12:15:48+00:00 Adnan Mohammed S. Roshan Zameer Umar Chowdhry Dr. Ashok Kumar <p>This paper presents a study on "Machine Learning for Weather Prediction and Air Quality Index Estimation," aimed at enhancing weather forecasting and air quality monitoring. Integrating historical weather data with real-time atmospheric measurements from the OpenWeather API, the study utilizes the Random Forest Machine Learning algorithm to construct predictive models. Backend operations are managed by a Django application on AWS EC2, supported by Nginx as a reverse proxy. The frontend, a ReactJS-based web app hosted on AWS S3 and distributed via CloudFront, offers an intuitive interface. Additionally, a dedicated mobile app extends the system's reach, delivering real-time updates on weather conditions and air quality. This comprehensive approach empowers users with precise insights for informed decision-making and environmental awareness.</p> 2024-04-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Adnan Mohammed, S. Roshan Zameer, Umar Chowdhry, Dr. Ashok Kumar Role of Retail Channel Management Strategy – In Context of Indian Automobile Dealerships Satisfaction 2024-05-02T06:09:56+00:00 Sujay Bhalchandra N.D.Shinde <p>Maintaining high-quality standards is crucial for dealerships to ensure ongoing business success since they play a critical role in promoting manufacturers in the marketplace. The study's objective is to highlight areas where Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM)-Dealers relationships are lacking in relation to crucial business metrics in order to provide practical recommendations for improving OEM-Dealer collaboration. The study utilizes primary data, collected from 141 automobile dealers in Pune using a random sampling technique and structured interviews. Secondary data is gathered in order to reinforce the study's objectives. The study's aims are thoroughly justified through the use of SPSS for primary data analysis (t-tests, ANOVA, regression, and correlation) and Excel for secondary data analysis. Statistical research shows a substantial association between OEM market shares and DSI (dealer satisfaction index), with a Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.850, signifying a highly significant relationship. Dealers linked to enterprises with larger market shares are more likely to show higher satisfaction ratings. The study emphasizes the significance of Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) participation in policy-making, revealing a strong link (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.821) between dealer satisfaction and OEM’s involvement with policy decisions. The findings emphasize the essential standing of collaboration between OEMs and dealers and provide practical suggestions for improving business partnerships, leading to increased dealer satisfaction and overall success in the automotive sector.</p> 2024-04-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Sujay Bhalchandra, N.D.Shinde A Review of Smoke Quitting Ring using AI 2024-04-26T06:42:07+00:00 Vanshika Bali Pooja Sehgal Dr. Ratandeep Kaur <p>Smoking cessation continues to pose a significant public health challenge on a global scale, highlighting the need for innovative solutions to effectively support individuals in their journey to quit smoking. Traditional cessation programs often fall short in providing personalized support, resulting in high rates of relapse. To bridge this gap, we introduce the AI-Enabled Smart Quitting Ring, a wearable device that combines biometric authentication, smoke detection sensors, and personalized AI-driven interventions.</p> <p>This cutting-edge device offers real-time support and monitoring, utilizing machine learning algorithms to adapt interventions based on user behavior. The Smart Quitting Ring is designed to revolutionize smoking cessation efforts by delivering tailored support and boosting user motivation, ultimately leading to improved long-term quit rates and enhanced public health outcomes.</p> 2024-04-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Vanshika Bali, Pooja Sehgal, Dr. Ratandeep Kaur Large Language Model (LLM) AI Text Generation Detection based on Transformer Deep Learning Algorithm 2024-05-02T06:10:34+00:00 Yuhong Mo Hao Qin Yushan Dong Ziyi Zhu Zhenglin Li <p>In this paper, a tool for detecting LLM AI text generation is developed based on the Transformer model, aiming to improve the accuracy of AI text generation detection and provide reference for subsequent research. Firstly the text is Unicode normalised, converted to lowercase form, characters other than non-alphabetic characters and punctuation marks are removed by regular expressions, spaces are added around punctuation marks, first and last spaces are removed, consecutive ellipses are replaced with single spaces and the text is connected using the specified delimiter. Next remove non-alphabetic characters and extra whitespace characters, replace multiple consecutive whitespace characters with a single space and again convert to lowercase form. The deep learning model combines layers such as LSTM, Transformer and CNN for text classification or sequence labelling tasks. The training and validation sets show that the model loss decreases from 0.127 to 0.005 and accuracy increases from 94.96 to 99.8, indicating that the model has good detection and classification ability for AI generated text. The test set confusion matrix and accuracy show that the model has 99% prediction accuracy for AI-generated text, with a precision of 0.99, a recall of 1, and an f1 score of 0.99, achieving a very high classification accuracy. Looking forward, it has the prospect of wide application in the field of AI text detection.</p> 2024-04-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Yuhong Mo, Hao Qin, Yushan Dong, Ziyi Zhu, Zhenglin Li Optical Character Recognition from Images 2024-05-10T06:52:04+00:00 Angel Jean Jisha .M Vijayalakshmi Shivkhumar <p>Analysis of document images for information extraction has become very prominent in recent past. Wide variety of information, which has been conventionally stored on paper, is now being converted into electronic form for better storage and intelligent processing. This needs processing of documents using image analysis, processing methods. This article provides an overview of various methods used for digital image processing using three main components: Pre-processing, Feature extraction and the Classification. Pre-processing feature extraction and classification. Classification is an important step in Office Automation, Digital Libraries, and other document image analysis applications.</p> 2024-04-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Angel, Jean Jisha .M, Vijayalakshmi Shivkhumar Collective Research Review on Chaotic Based Encryption Algorithms, Speech Encryption Algorithms and Cryptographic Requirements 2024-05-10T04:37:38+00:00 Pushpalatha G S Dr. Ramesh S <p>Chaotic cryptography has been a recent development by researchers due to its interesting properties such as non-linear behavior, sensitivity to initial conditions, ergodicity, mixing, confusion and diffusion etc. This paper is a brief review of various standard encryption algorithms, cryptographic requirements for design of chaotic based cryptosystem and chaos-based speech encryption algorithms. This study also gives various statistical tests needs to be considered for conformity about suitable randomness of the binary sequences generated using either hardware or software means for cryptographic applications as key sequence.</p> 2024-04-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pushpalatha G S, Dr. Ramesh S The Beard Culture: Analysing Youngster’s Preferences and Perceptions in Odisha 2024-05-17T07:23:09+00:00 Prof. Debasish Rout Dr. Somabhusana Janakiballav Mishra Prof. Debabrata Sahoo Tejaswini Kantha <p>"We never know who we're influencing, when, or why. "not until the present gets consumed by the future." in the words of stephen king, "we realise when it's too late."</p> <p>"<em>Today's youth are not just following beard trends; they're embodying a cultural shift towards masculinity and self-expression." </em>- a book called "the beard trend phenomenon: understanding cultural influences on youth".</p> <p>In this digital world, where you can get updates on every celebrity and role model you follow, trends can have a strong influence on your thoughts process, beliefs, and guide your behaviour according to it. Not only that, but recent trends have the power to influence our culture and societal norms as well, making it important to understand the physiology behind it.</p> <p>This article discusses the preferences and perceptions of youth in odisha being motivated to grow beards and continuously tailor them according to trends. It lists every valid argument that could be influencing young people's decision to join the beard craze. Starting with psychological elements, religious or even sports superstition, and the effect of top celebrities, everything is described in detail here.</p> 2024-04-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Prof. Debasish Rout, Dr. Somabhusana Janakiballav Mishra, Prof. Debabrata Sahoo, Tejaswini Kantha E-Waste Recycling in Delhi NCR 2024-05-18T07:24:32+00:00 Mrs. Deepika Dr. Mayank Jindal <p>When an electronic product is thrown away after its useful life is over, it produces electronic trash, or e-waste. E-waste is produced in vast quantities as a result of the consumption-driven society and the quick development of technology. Recycling is the systematic gathering and treatment of items that would otherwise be discarded as waste, with the purpose of transforming them into fresh goods. Recycling can have positive impacts on your neighborhood, the economy, and the environment. The main objective of this paper is to describe the waste recycling companies in India. One primary motivation for recycling is to reduce expenses associated with waste collection and waste management. This also aids in mitigating the adverse environmental consequences of landfill garbage. &nbsp;To achieve the objective of this paper we have analyzed two big companies. In the analysis we have taken the company’s introduction, their founder and location, type of waste they are recycling and products they are producing.</p> 2024-04-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Mrs. Deepika, Dr. Mayank Jindal