International Journal of Engineering and Management Research <p>International Journal of Engineering and Management Research is a full peer-reviewed &amp; refereed open access bi-monthly journal that publish research papers / articles on all the fields of engineering and management subjects.</p> <p><strong>JOURNAL PARTICULARS</strong></p> <p><strong>Title:</strong> International Journal of Engineering and Management Research<br /><strong>Frequency:</strong> Bimonthly (6 issue per year)<br /><strong>ISSN (Online):</strong> <a href="[]=MUST=allissnbis=%222250-0758%22&amp;search_id=23468206" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2250-0758</a><br /><strong>ISSN (Print):</strong> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2394-6962</a><br /><strong>Publisher:</strong> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Vandana Publications</a>, Lucknow, India (Registered under the Ministry of MSME, Government of India with the registration number “UDYAM-UP-50-0046532”)<br /><strong>Chief Editor:</strong> Prof. (Dr.) Mohammad Husain (Head of the Faculty, Department of Computer Science, Islamic University of Madinah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia<strong>)</strong><br /><strong>Copyright:</strong> Author<br /><strong>License:</strong> Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License<br /><strong>Starting Year:</strong> 2011<br /><strong>Subject:</strong> Engineering and Management <br /><strong>Language:</strong> English<br /><strong>Publication Format:</strong> Online &amp; Print<br /><strong>Contact Number:</strong> +91-9696045327<br /><strong>Email Id:</strong><br /><strong>Website:</strong> <a href=""></a><br /><strong>Registered Address:</strong> UG-4, Avadh Tower, Naval Kishor Road, Opp. Kaysons Lane, Hazratganj, Lucknow-226001, India.</p> en-US (Prof. (Dr.) Mohammad Husain) (Abhishek Shukla) Tue, 06 Feb 2024 07:44:42 +0000 OJS 60 Artificial Intelligence's Effects on the Profession of Architecture and Architects' Prospects <p>AI is a rapidly developing field that will become a vital component of our future. Recently, most employed technologies are somewhat artificially intelligent, but most of the task still need human input. In comparison to disciplines such as IT, cybersecurity, and health, AI progress in architecture is still in its early stages. The prevailing notion in architecture is that intelligent robots will take the role of designers in the creation of works of art and architectural structures. However, only humans continue to have access to the outputs of open-ended creative processes. &nbsp;AI can do countless activities involved in the design of buildings that require human intelligence, such as making decisions. Therefore, it is essential to comprehend the function, benefits, and drawbacks of this technology inside the design process from a professional standpoint. As a result, a survey will be sent to several professional designers, architects, and researchers. A summary of their results will subsequently be included in this page. The objective is to understand how AI methods can impact the architect's perspective on the design process. Some large architectural firms have started experimenting with deep learning methods to put data gathered over years of profession into practice, with a special interest in environmental sustainability and building performance. Many researchers are working on artificial intelligence applications to architectural design. The next step, in our opinion, is to comprehend the potential functions of this technology inside the architectural design process as well as the extents to which they may support a profession as complicated as architecture. In the article, we will summaries their testimonies, compare and discuss the designer’s responses to understand the potential uses of artificial intelligence techniques in the design process, and report their opinions on how these techniques may affect the approach to the project taken by the architect. We will then conclude with some reflections on the important issues discovered during the interviews with the designers.</p> Tithi Shah, Sanika Sahastrabuddhe Copyright (c) 2024 Tithi Shah, Sanika Sahastrabuddhe Tue, 06 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Import and Export on the Economic Growth of Ghana <p class="Abstract" style="text-indent: 0in;"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-weight: normal;">This study investigates the impact of import and export on the economic growth of Ghana by using a multiple linear regression model. The variables of interest for these models were the gross domestic product representing the economic growth as the dependent variable. Import, export, foreign direct investment, and population were the independent variables used in determining the relationship they have with economic growth. Secondary data on GDP, import, export, population, and FDI were accessed from the World Bank website to satisfy the model which was run through a regression software called STATA. The results from the study indicated that both import and export are tremendously important factors in effecting growth in the economy of Ghana. Population on the other hand shows a negative effect on the economy. This research then suggested that more exports must be encouraged to boost the growth of the economy.</span></p> Moyo Grace, Amoah Daniel Ayisi Copyright (c) 2024 Moyo Grace, Amoah Daniel Ayisi Tue, 06 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Organic Product Label on the Consumer Perception <p>In the organic market which is saturated in nature, the organic food consumption is seen to be growing to a considerable level. With such a prevalence, the market share for organic products has been seen to be increasing. The main element for the successful growth of the organic sector is the optimistic image which most of the consumers attribute to the organic products. Such an optimistic image is created through the labels possessed in the organic products. In this regard, the current study explores the influence of organic product label over the consumer perception regarding the organic products. The respondents of the study are the consumers of organic products in Chennai. They have been selected through simple random sampling as the respondents of the study. The size of the sample is 100 and the instrument for data collection is questionnaire. Regression has been adopted for data collection. Findings of the study reveal that product label strongly influence on consumer perception towards organic products.</p> R. Sangeetha, Dr. A. Geetha Copyright (c) 2024 R. Sangeetha, Dr. A. Geetha Wed, 07 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 A Study on Consumer’s Intention to Adopt Technology for UPI Payments <p>Our research was conducted to examine the consumer’s intention towards adopting technology for UPI payments and to identify the factors affecting the consumer’s intention. UPI is a digital payment system that facilitates instant fund transfers between bank accounts through a mobile application that is available 24*7.</p> <p>The research methodology involves a survey of a representative sample of consumers who are using and have used UPI or have the potential to use it in the future. The survey was conducted with data collected from 124 respondents.</p> <p>This study helps to understand the importance of perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness and perceived security in driving consumer’s intention to adopt technology for UPI payments. The results suggests that it is important for the UPI technology providers to focus on enhancing the perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and perceived security of their technology to encourage adoption and usage among customers.</p> Sathyapriya N, Shanmugapriya R M, Shobana R, Shivapriya M, Shashi Rekhaa TG, Shreya M Copyright (c) 2024 Sathyapriya N, Shanmugapriya R M, Shobana R, Shivapriya M, Shashi Rekhaa TG, Shreya M Wed, 07 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 An Assessment of E-Waste Management Challenges in Zambia <p>Electronic wastes (E-waste) are wastes which contain harmful and toxic components that can harm the environment and human health. Therefore, proper E-waste management is cardinal for any nation but majority of the developing countries such as Zambia face challenges of managing E-waste. The aim of this research was to assess E-waste management challenges in Zambia. The study employed a descriptive quantitative research design and a sample size of 168 was determined using Yamane formula. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data and the collected data was analyzed using the Software Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). &nbsp;The results revealed that lack of funds and investment, lack of recycling technologies, and inefficient infrastructure are significant challenges in managing E-Waste materials. However, the lack of government policies and regulation was found not to be a significant challenge. The regression analysis conducted showed that the correlation coefficient R (a relationship between E-waste management and E-waste management) indicated a moderately strong positive correlation of 0.76. The coefficient of determination, R Square, was 0.649, meaning that 64.9% of the variance in E-waste management can be explained by E-waste challenges. The recommendations for addressing e-waste management challenges in Zambia based on the results from the study are to develop a comprehensive e-waste management policy, increase public awareness, develop e-waste recycling infrastructure, encourage the circular economy, strengthen the capacity of regulatory bodies, and increase collaboration between stakeholders.</p> Stacy Sanana, Bupe G Mwanza Copyright (c) 2024 Stacy Sanana, Bupe G Mwanza Thu, 08 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Reach, Resonance and Relevance of Social Media Influencers on Generation Z and Alpha Generation <p>Social media influencers (SMIS) are playing an increasingly dominant role in marketing, especially towards Gen Z and Gen Alpha. This study explores how these generations perceive SMIS and how it influences their consumer behavior, purchasing decisions, and lifestyle choices. Gen Z and Gen Alpha are particularly susceptible to influencer marketing due to their digital nativity and reliance on social media for information and entertainment. The study defines three key characteristics of SMIS: reach, resonance, and relevance. Reach refers to the number of people a SMI can Reach with their content. Resonance refers to the level of connection and engagement an influencer has with their audience. Relevance refers to how closely aligned a SMI content is with a brand and its target audience. The study highlights the implications of these findings for marketers, influencers, and scholars. Marketers can leverage influencer Marketing to reach their target audience and influence consumer Behavior by choosing SMIS with high reach, relevance, and resonance. Influencers can learn how to build deeper connections with their audience and create content that resonates with Gen Z and Gen Alpha. Scholars can use this research to understand how generational dynamics interact with technology and inform future studies on consumer behavior and digital influence. Overall, this study provides valuable insights into the growing importance of SMIS in the digital age and their impact on consumer behavior, particularly among Gen Z and Gen Alpha.</p> Anna Jose, Maria Ignatius, Dr. Mary Rani Thomas Copyright (c) 2024 Anna Jose, Maria Ignatius, Dr. Mary Rani Thomas Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Medical Imaging Using Deep Learning <p>The healthcare sector has been transformed by deep learning, a kind of artificial intelligence Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) and recurrent neural networks (RNNs) are two examples of deep learning techniques that have been used to evaluate medical pictures, forecast illness outcomes, and enhance patient care. This study examines the important strides made by deep learning in the fields of radiology, pathology, genomics, and electronic health records (EHRs). Additionally, it draws attention to the difficulties and moral issues that come with the application of deep learning in healthcare, highlighting the necessity of strong data protection and model interpretability. Deep learning's potential and promising results in healthcare highlight its revolutionary effects on patient care, diagnosis, and treatment, ultimately raising the standard of care.</p> Mrs. P. Menaka, J. Subhashita, S. Parthiban, S. Sooraj, R. Dinesh Copyright (c) 2024 Mrs. P. Menaka, J. Subhashita, S. Parthiban, S. Sooraj, R. Dinesh Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 A Survey of Object Classification and Detection Techniques in Assistance Systems for the Visually Impaired <p>The number of visually impaired individuals in the world is estimated to be 1 billion, as per WHO reports. Through a thorough examination of existing assistive technology and research, this paper provides a survey of object classification and detection techniques that are used in assistive technology by visually impaired individuals. We discuss the methodology’s drawbacks, s and functionalities of these techniques, and observe how sufficient they are in meeting the needs and requirements of the targeted users, and how they can be improved. As a result of this study, we identify areas with room for improvement in object detection in the assistive technology domain.</p> Mrunmayi Deshpande, Sreenath M V, Shreya Nadella, Nirav Antony, Nivedita Venkat Copyright (c) 2024 Mrunmayi Deshpande, Sreenath M V, Shreya Nadella, Nirav Antony, Nivedita Venkat Mon, 12 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 A Survey on Real-Time Market Dynamics Through Visual Dashboards <p>This paper presents a web-based dashboard for real-time data visualization, primarily focusing on financial markets and cryptocurrencies. Data visualization serves as an effective means to convey intricate data clearly and concisely. Utilizing React for the front end, Flask for the backend API, and incorporating data visualization libraries such as Chart.js, our dashboard offers dynamic and interactive data representations. Comprehensive overview of dashboard design, architecture, and functionality, highlighting its importance in monitoring and analyzing financial information in real-time. Furthermore, we delve into the challenges faced during development and potential areas for improvement. This dashboard proves to be an invaluable resource for traders, investors, and financial analysts navigating today's dynamic economic landscape. It provides valuable insights and actionable data to support decision-making.</p> Gaurav Marathe, Dr. Mrs. Swapna Bhavsar, Arjun Bajare, Vaidehi Jadhav, Aishwarya Nikam Copyright (c) 2024 Gaurav Marathe, Dr. Mrs. Swapna Bhavsar, Arjun Bajare, Vaidehi Jadhav, Aishwarya Nikam Tue, 13 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 A Comprehensive Study on Goods and Services Tax in India <p>The Goods and Service Tax [GST] is implemented by the Government of India on 1<sup>st</sup> July 2017 through the one hundred and first amendment of the constitution of India. It was marked a significant shift in the country's taxation landscape. GST, which is publicized as the one nation one tax, brought with its expectations of free flowing of credit, subsequent to reduction in prices of goods and services as well as free movement of goods in India. In view of the changes, it brought to the tax system, it may be early to pass a final judgment on its achievement. While GST has streamlined the tax regime and promoted economic integration, its full potential is yet to be realized, requiring continuous reforms and adaptations to address challenges and capitalize on opportunities for sustainable growth. This paper tries to trace the historic journey of GST in India and take a look at the experience of Government and businesses in their initial years of GST implementation.</p> Dr. Rani Jacob, Karthika Binu, Anjana P B Copyright (c) 2024 Rani Jacob, Karthika Binu, Anjana P B Sun, 18 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Unmasking the Evolution of Social Engineering in Cybersecurity: Techniques, Vulnerabilities, and Countermeasures <p>This research explores the historical evolution, tactics, and classifications of social engineering in the realm of cyber security. Tracing its roots back to the 1990s when attackers would exploit human vulnerabilities through phone calls, the paper highlights the shift towards sophisticated techniques targeting individuals to transfer substantial sums or disclose sensitive information. The term "social engineering" was coined in 1894, gaining prominence in cybersecurity in the 1990s and evolving with the proliferation of the internet. The attackers meticulously research their targets, utilizing human-based and computer-based social engineering tactics.<br>The classification section delineates human-based social engineering techniques, including impersonation, posing as an important user, using a third person, calling technical support, shoulder surfing, and dumpster diving. Computer-based social engineering involves fake emails, email attachments, pop-up windows, and other deceptive practices. The paper delves into various types of social engineering attacks, such as manipulating conversations, piggybacking, tracking, baiting, phishing, smishing, Trojan horse attacks, water hole attacks, and reverse social engineering.<br>The document emphasizes the need for self-protection measures, providing guidelines to recognize and thwart social engineering attacks. It also discusses real-time examples like email phishing scams and suggests multi-factor authentication as a potential solution. In conclusion, the research underscores the significance of understanding and combating social engineering, offering insights into its dynamics and countermeasures to fortify cybersecurity in an ever-evolving digital landscape.</p> Dr. Paravathi C, Dhanyashree G, Yeshaswini R, Lisha S Copyright (c) 2024 Dr. Paravathi C, Dhanyashree G, Yeshaswini R, Lisha S Wed, 21 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Packet Sniffing <p>Packet sniffing is a technique used to monitor network traffic by intercepting each packet that flows across the network. It can be used as a helpful administrative tool or for malicious purposes. With the advancement of technology, the network is growing rapidly, resulting in an increase in network traffic. Therefore, it is crucial to monitor both the network traffic and the activities of its users in order to maintain a smooth and efficient network. However, monitoring a large network can be a complex task due to the large number of packets involved. This is where packet sniffing comes in handy. Packet sniffing plays a vital role in network monitoring as it allows network administrators to identify any weaknesses in the network. This paper focuses on the use of packet sniffing in various environments, such as cyber attacks and ethical purposes. By utilizing a packet sniffer, we can capture and analyze network traffic. Different protocols, such as TCP, IP, and UDP, are implemented, and filtering based on these protocols is also performed.</p> Dr. Paravathi C, Roshini D, Shwetha S Nayak Copyright (c) 2024 Dr. Paravathi C, Roshini D, Shwetha S Nayak Wed, 21 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Forecasting Stock Prices through Time Series, Econometric, Machine Learning, and Deep Learning Models <p>Over an comprehensive ending, scientist have loyal solid efforts to plan a strong and exact predicting foundation for guessing stock prices. Academic discourse emphasizes that intricately devised and refined predicting models occupy the competency to carefully and dependably expect future stock principles. This case introduces a various array of models, including methods to a degree period succession reasoning, econometrics, and miscellaneous knowledge-based approaches tailor-made for stock price guess. Analyzing dossier connecting from January 2004 to December 2019 for famous enterprises to a degree Sun Pharma Group, ICICI Bank, and Infosys Technologies, the models suffered rigorous preparation and estimate to judge their influence across various labors. This research engages a unique mixture of methodologies, containing an individual occasion order models , an econometric approach (ARIMA model), and a pair of machine intelligence model like MARS and Random Forest. Additionally, the study integrates two deep knowledge- located models, particularly the plain RNN and LSTM. This diverse array of models aims to supply a inclusive study of stock price activities vague areas. The study results emphasize the preeminence of Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) as the most able machine intelligence model, Short-term memory (LSTM) has emerged as a deep learning model. Importantly, MARS usually illustrates superior influence in the specific domain of transactions guessing across the Information Technology (resorting to Infosys dossier), Banking (illustration upon ICICI dossier), and Health (depending SUN PHARMA dossier) sectors.</p> Anand Kumar Dohare, Mohammad Abuzaid Copyright (c) 2024 Anand Kumar Dohare, Mohammad Abuzaid Wed, 21 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Plant Health Monitoring System Using Machine Learning <p>Agriculture has transformed into more than just a means to feed growing populations; it's a crucial sector in India, engaging over 70% of the workforce and ensuring sustenance for a vast number of people. Plants play a pivotal role in ecosystems, supporting human life and wildlife by providing food. Preserving plant health is imperative, particularly in detecting diseases, as it directly impacts the quality and quantity of agricultural yields.<br>This paper focuses on the technologies that are being used in plant health monitoring system which is being adopted nowadays in agriculture to make farming easy, for example image processing approaches for plant disease detection. Manually monitoring plant diseases is a difficult task. A manual plant disease monitoring system needs additional processing time and plant disease knowledge. As a result, a method for identifying plant diseases that is quick, automated, and accurate is required. As a result, image processing techniques are utilised to detect, process, and identify plant diseases since they are quick, automated, and accurate. Visualization is a traditional way of identifying diseases in plants, however it is not as effective in detecting diseases linked with plants. As a result, we can give a superior option, one that is both fast and precise, by employing image processing techniques that are more trustworthy than certain older methods.</p> Anand Kumar Dohare, Adnan Ahmad Khan Copyright (c) 2024 Anand Kumar Dohare, Adnan Ahmad Khan Wed, 21 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Development of a Time-Cost Model for Construction Projects in Federal Polytechnic of Oil and Gas, Nigeria <p>Tertiary institutions in Nigeria are usually faced with the problem of completing building projects within the scheduled durations and budgeted costs. In this study, 8 building construction projects completed in the Federal Polytechnic of Oil and Gas were analysed between the years 2014 and 2023. A non-linear regression time-cost model was developed based on the Bromilow’s Time-Cost (BTC) model. The results show that it would take 1858.3 working days to complete the construction of a building in a Nigerian tertiary institution for every one million Australian Dollar. Predictions were made for construction durations and construction costs with the formulated model. The model was found to be adequate and fit, with an R<sup>2</sup> value of 0.8218. This also indicates that the BTC model applies to tertiary institution building construction projects in Nigeria.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Kenneth Miebaka Oba, Dareme Constantine Oloko Copyright (c) 2024 Kenneth Miebaka Oba, Dareme Constantine Oloko Fri, 23 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Strategic Management Practice on Organizational Performance: The Case of Ethio Telecom <p>The aim of this research paper was to examine the effect of strategic management practices on organization performance in the case of Ethio telecom (the leading telecom company in Ethiopia). To conduct this study, the&nbsp; study used an explanatory research design to examine the effect of strategic management practice (strategy formulation, strategy implementation and strategy evaluation) on organization performance. The target population comprised 517 Ethio telecom employees and 226 samples drawn. The study used questionnaires for data collection. Accordingly, 226 questionnaires were&nbsp; distributed through a google form link and 206 questionnaires were properly filled.&nbsp; Both descriptive and inferential analysis techniques have been used to analyze the data using SPSS version 23 tool. The results of the study showed that from the dimensions of strategic management practices, strategic evaluation is the most important predictor of organization performance and followed by strategic formulation; while strategic implementation is moderately related in terms of magnitude of the effect.</p> Leykun Arega, Yohannes Workeaferahu Elifneh Copyright (c) 2024 Leykun Arega, Yohannes Workeaferahu Elifneh Wed, 28 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Banks Plays a Pivotal Role in Entrepreneurship Development <p>Banks contribute significantly and positively in advising and providing loans for the development of entrepreneur in India. Banks are essential for the survival and their unique role as the engine of growth in the country. The central government organization regulates banking and non-banking financial institutions. Entrepreneurship development is a concept that has to do with the formation, financing, growth and expansion of business or enterprises in an economy. This paper focus on the role of banks in the development of entrepreneurship in Mysore. It is aimed at to find out problems faced by entrepreneurs in obtaining the loans from the banks for their startups/expansion and the major difficulties faced by the banks towards sanctioning and recovery of the loans. This paper also focused on factors considered by banks before lending loans to entrepreneurs.</p> Dr. Anand. K., Dr. Naveen Kumar. H Copyright (c) 2024 Dr. Anand. K., Dr. Naveen Kumar. H Wed, 28 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Role of Contingent Workforce on the Vodafone-Oman Company Performance <p>Through contingent workforce, organizations can quickly add or remove their labor force in response to the changes in market demand. As per their seasonal demand requirements, most of the companies are gaining benefit through this flexible approach of recruiting the contingent employees. During the un-season or no-sales period, the management can easily remove these contingent employees and during the high-demand and peak-season period management can easily hire the new intake of contingent workers as per the situational requirement. This is how the management can reduce the burden of additional labor cost during their un-seasons and they are raising organizational performance and productivity during their peak seasons. Without making any long-term commitment the companies can test and use the skills and abilities of contingent workforce. Especially when the companies wish to expand, their branches to new territories and those who wish to start their new business with new products to test the market, these contingent workers are more profitable and cost saving strategies to the companies. The contingent workforce can also deliver the best of their wider pool of talents and skills in the organizations. With the rise of remote work and the gig economy, companies are taking quick decisions to hire the talent in their immediate geographical areas. This opens a world of possibilities for finding the right person for a specific job. Moreover, contingent workers often bring specific expertise and skills, which might be not available in the organization. This is an added advantage to the projects or initiatives, which have linked with specific and unique skills or knowledge. In many organizations, contingent workers are hired through third parties or consultants. In some companies, they are offering payment for number of hours worked or one lump sum amount after completion of total project work. Generally, these contingent workers will be recruited with no extra perks, appraisals and leaves as like as full time employees. &nbsp;Contingent workers have to perform as like as full-time workers even though they will be paid less comparatively with the full-time workers.</p> Kawther Musabah Alghafri, Muadh Khalfan AlSiyabi, Bashaer Mabrook Albusaidi, Hafsa Mahmood Alhadi, Dr. Chandra Sekhara Reddy Kamireddy Copyright (c) 2024 Kawther Musabah Alghafri, Muadh Khalfan AlSiyabi, Bashaer Mabrook Albusaidi, Hafsa Mahmood Alhadi, Dr. Chandra Sekhara Reddy Kamireddy Thu, 29 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000